The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution secured the right to vote to women.
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Edmunds Tucker Act is debated and adopted by the Senate
A bill to amend an act entitled “An act to amend section 5352 of the Revised Statutes of the United States in reference to bigamy, and for other purposes,” approved March 22, 1882.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, &c., Than in any proceeding and examination before a grand jury, a judge, a justice, or a United States commissioner, or a court, in any prosecution for bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation, under any statute of the United States, the lawful husband or wife of the person accused shall be a competent witness, and may be called and may be compelled to testify in such proceeding, examination, or prosecution without the consent of the husand or wife, as the case may be; but such witness shall not be permitted to testify as to any confidential statement or communication made by either husband or wife to each other during the existence of the marriage reation.
SEC. 2. That in any prosecution for bigamy, polygamy, or ulawful cohabitation, uder any stature of the United States, whether before a United States commissioner, justice, judge, a grande jury, or any court, an attachment for any witness may be issued by the court, judge, or commissioner, without a previous subpoena, compelling the immediate attendance of such witness, when it shall appear to the commissioner, justice, judge, or court, as the case may be, tha there is reasonable ground to believe that suchwitness will unlawfully fail to oben a subpoena issued and served in the usual course in such cases; and in such case the usuall witness-fees shall be paid to such witness so attached: Provided, That no person shall be held in custody under any attachment issued as provided by this section for a longer time than then days; and the person attached may at any time secure his or her discharge from custody by executying a recognizance, with sufficient sureties, conditioned for the appearance of such person at the proper time as a witness in the cause or proceeding wherein the attachment may be issued.
SEC. 3. That any prosecution under any statute of the United States for bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation may be commenced at amy time within five years next after the commission of the offense; bot this provision shall not be construed to apply to any offense already barred by any existing statute of limitation.
SEC. 4. That every ceremony of marriage, or in the nature of a marriage ceremony, of any kind, in any of the Territories of the United States, whether either or both or more of the parties to such ceremony be lawfully competent to be the subjects of such marriage or ceremony or not, shall be certified in writing by a certificate stating the fact and nature of such ceremony, the full names of each of the parties concerned, and the full name of every officer, priest, and person, bu whatever style or designation call or known, in any way taking part in tn the performance of such ceremony, which certificate shall be drawn up and signed by the parties to such ceremony, and by every officer, priest and person taking part in the performace of such ceremony, and shall be by the officer, priest, or other person solemnizing such marriage or ceremony filled in the office of the probate court, or, if there be none,in the office of the court having probate powers in the county or district in which such ceremony shall take place, for record, and shall be immediately recorded. Such certificate or the record thereof, or a duly certified copy of such record, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts required by this act to be stated therein, in any proceeding, civil or criminal, in which the matter shall be drawn in question. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more that $1,000, or by imprisonment not longer than two years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court.
SEC. 5. That every certificate, record, and entry of any kind concerning any ceremony of marriage, or in the nature of a marriage ceremony of any kind, made or kept by any officer, clergyman, priest, or person performing civil or ecclesiastical functions, whether lawful or not, in any Territory of the United States, and any record thereof in any office or place, shall be subject to inspection at all reasonable times by any judge, magistrate, or officer by any person in whose possession or control the same may be. Every person who shall violate the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more that $1,000, or by imprisonment not longer than two years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court. And it shall be lawful for any United States commissioner, justice, judge, or court before whom any proceeding shall be pending in which such certificate, record, or entry may be material by proper warrant, to cause such certificate, record, or entry, and the book document, or paper containing the same, to be taken and brought before him or it for the purposes of such proceedings.
SEC. 6. That nothing in this act shall be held to prevent the proof of marriages, whether lawful or unlawful, by any evidence now legally admissible for that purpose.
SEC. 7. That it shall not be lawful for any female to vote at any election hereafter held in the Territory of Utah for any public purpose whatever, and no such vote shall be received or counted or given effect in any manner whatever; and any and every act of the governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah providing for or allowing the registration or voting by females is hereby annulled.
SEC. 8. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide for numbering or identifying the votes of the electors at any election in said Territory are hereby disapproved and annulled; but the foregoing provision shall not preclude the lawful registration of voters, or any other provisions for securing fair elections which do not involve the disclosure on the candidates for whom any particular elector shall have voted.
SEC. 9. That the laws enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah conferring jurisdiction upon probate courts or the judges thereof, or any of them, in said Territory, other than in respect of the estates of deceased persons in respect of the guardianship of the persons and property of infants, and in respect of the persons and property of persons not of sound mind, are hereby disapproved and annulled; and no probate court or judge of probate shall exercise any jurisdiction other than in respect of the matters aforesaid; and every such jurisdiction so by force of this act withdrawn from the said probate courts or judges shall be had and exercised by the district courts of said Territory, respectively.
SEC. 10. That the laws enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide for or recognize the capacity of illegitimate children to inherit or to be entitled to any distributive share in the estate of the father of such illegitimate child are hereby disapproved and annulled; and no illegitimate child shall hereafter be entitled to inherit from his or her father or to receive any distributive share in the estate of his or her father: Provided, That this section shall not apply to any illegitimate child born previous to the passage of this act.
SEC. 11. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide that prosecution for adultery can only be commenced on the complaint of the husband or wife are hereby disapproved and annulled; and all prosecutions for adultery may hereafter be instituted in the same way that prosecutions for other crimes are.
SEC. 12. That the acts of the Legislative Assembly of Utah incorporating, continuing, or providing for the corporation known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and the ordinance of the so-called General Assembly of the State of Deseret incorporating the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, so far as the same may now have legal force and validity, are hereby disapproved and annulled, so far as the same may preclude the appointment by the United States of certain trustees of said corporation as is hereinafter provided. The President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint fourteen trustees of the said corporation, who shall have and exercise all the powers and functions of trustees and assistant trustees provided for in the law creating, amending, or continuing the said corporation, which trustees so appointed should hold their respective offices for the term of two years; and the trustees of said corporation shall annually or oftener make a full report to the Secretary of the Interior embracing all the property, business affairs, and operations of the said corporation; and the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah shall not have power to change the laws respecting said corporation without the approval of Congress. Shaid trustees shall each give bond payable to the United States, with good and sufficient security, for the faithful discharge of the duties incumbent upon him as a trustee, in such sum as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior.
SEC. 13. That it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General of the United States to institute and prosecute proceedings to forfeit and escheat to the United States the property of corporations obtained or held in violation of section 3 of the act of Congress approved the 1st day of July, 1862, entitled “An act to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States and other places, and disapproving and anulling certain acts of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah,” or in violation of section 1890 of the Revised Statutes of the United States; and all such property so forfeited and escheated to the United States shall be disposed of by the Secretary of the Interior, and the proceeds thereof applied to the use and benefit of the common schools in the Territory in which such property may be: Provided, That no building or the grounds appurtenant thereto shall be forfeited which is held and occupied exclusively for purposes of the worship of God.
SEC. 14. That in any proceeding for the enforcement of the provisions of law against corporations or associations acquiring or holding property in any Territory of the United States in excess of the amount limited by law, the court before which such proceeding may be instituted shall have power in a summary way to complete the production of all books, records, papers, and documents of or belonging to any trustee or person holding or controlling or managing property in which such corporation may have any right, title, or interest whatever.
SEC. 15. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, or of the so-called government of the State of Deseret, creating, organizing, amending, or continuing the corporation or association called toe Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company are hereby disapproved and annulled; and it shall not be lawful for the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah to create, organize, or in any manner recognize any corporation or association for the purpose of or operating to accomplish the bringing of persons into the said Territory for any purpose whatsoever.
SEC. 16. That it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General of the United States to cause such proceedings to be taken in the supreme court of the Territory of Utah as shall be proper to dissolve the said corporation mentioned in the preceding section and pay the debts and to dispose of the property and assets thereof according to law. Said property and assets, in excess of the debts and the amount of any lawful claims established by the court against the same, and that by law shall escheat to the United States, shall be taken, invested, and dist posed of by the Secretary of the Interior, under the direction of the President of the United States, for the benefit of common schools in said Territory.
SEC. 17. That the existing election of districts and apportionments of representation concerning the members of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah are hereby abolished; and it shall be the duty of the governor, Territorial secretary, and the United States judges in said Territory forthwith to redistrict said Territory, and apportion representation in the same in such manner as to provide, as nearly as may be, for an equal representation of the people (excepting Indians not taxed), being citizens of the United States, according to numbers, in said Legislative Assembly, and to the number of members of the council and house of representatives, respectively, as now established by law; and a record of the establishment of such new districts and the apportionment of representation thereto shall be made in the office of the secretary of said Territory, and such establishment and representation shall continue until Congress shall otherwise provide; and no persons other than citizens of the United States otherwise qualified shall be entitled to vote at any election in said Territory.
SEC. 18. That the provisions of section 9 of said act, approved March 22, 1882, in regard to registration and election officers, and the registration of voters, and the conduct of elections, and the powers and duties of the board therein mentioned, shall continue and remain operative until the provision and laws therein referred to to be made and enacted by the Legislative Assembly of said Territory of Utah shall have been made and enacted by said Assembly and shall have been approved by Congress.
SEC. 19. That whoever commits adultery shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not exceeding three years; and when the act is committed between a married woman and a man who is unmarried, both parties to such act shall be deemed guilty of adultery; and when such act is committed between a married man and a woman who is unmarried, the man shall be deemed guilty of adultery.
SEC. 20. If any person related to another person within and not including the fourth degree of consanguinity, computed according to the rules of the civil law, shall marry, or cohabit with, or have sexual intercourse with such other so related person, knowing her or him to be within said degree of relationship, the persons offending shall be deemed guilty of incest, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentary not less than three years nor more than five years.
SEC. 21. That if an unmarried man or woman commit fornication, each of them shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by fine not exceeding $100.
SEC. 22. That commissioners appointed by the supreme court and district courts in the Territory of Utah shall possess and may exercise all the powers and jurisdiction that are or may be possessed or exercised by justices of the peace in said territory under the laws thereof, and the same powers conferred by law on commissioners appointed by circuit courts of the United States.
SEC. 23. That the marshal of said Territory of Utah and his deputies shall possess and may exercise all the powers in executing the laws of the United States possessed and exercised by sheriffs and their deputies as peace officers; and each of them shall cause all offenders against the law, in his view, to enter into recognizance to keep the peace and to appear at the next term of the court having jurisdiction of the case, and to commit to jail in case of failure to give such recognizance. They shall quell and suppress assaults and batteries, riots, routs, affray,s and insurrections, and shall apprehend and commit to jail all felons.
SEC. 24. That the office of Territorial superintendent of district schools created by the laws of Utah is hereby delared vacant; and it shall be the duty of the supreme court of said Territory to appoint a Territorial superintendent of district schools, who shall possess and exercise all the powers and duties imposed by the laws of said Territory upon the Territorial superintendent of district schools, and who shall receive the same salary and compensation, which shall be paid out of the treasury of said Territory; and the laws of the Territory of Utah providing for the method of election and appointment of such Territorial superintendent of district schools are hereby suspended until the further action of Congress shall be had in respect thereto. The said superintendent shall have power to prohibit the use in any district school of any book of a sectarian character or otherwise unsuitable. Said superintendent shall collect and classify statistics and other information respecting the district schools in said Territory, showing their progress, the whole number of children of school age, the number who attended school in each year in the respective counties, and average length of time of their attendance, the number of teachers and the compensation paid to the same, the number of teachers who are Mormons, the number who are so-called Gentiles, the number of children of Mormon parents and the number of children of so-called Gentile parents, and their respective average attendance at school. All of which statistics and information shall be annually reported to Congress, through the governor of said Territory and the Department of the Interior.
SEC. 25. (a) A widow shall be endowed of the third part of all the lands whereof her husband was seized of an estate of inheritance at any time during the marriage, unless she shall have lawfully released her right thereto.
(b) The widow of any alien who at the time of his death shall be entitled by law to hold any real estate, if she be an inhabitant of the Territory at the time of such death, shall be entitled to dower of such estate in the same manner as if such alien had been a native citizen.
(c) If a husband seized an estate of inheritance in lands exchanged them for other lands, his widow shall not have dower of both, but shall make her election to be endowed of the lands given or of those taken in exchange; and if such election be not evinced by the commencement of proceedings to recover her dower of the lands given in exchange within one year after the death of her husband, she shall be deemed to have elected to take her dower of the lands received in exchange.
(d) When a person seized of an estate of inheritance in lands shall have executed a mortgage on such estate before marriage, his widow shall nevertheless be entitled to dower out of the lands mortgaged as against every person except the mortgagee and those claiming under him.
(e) Where a husband shall purchase lands during coverture, and shall at the same time mortgage his estate in such lands to secure the payment of the purchase-money, his widow shall not be entitled to dower out of such lands, as against the mortgagee or those claiming under him, although she shall not have united in such mortgage; but she shall be entitled to her dower as against all other persons.
(f) Where in such case the mortgagee, or those claiming under him, shall, after the death of the husband of such widow, cause the land mortgaged to be sold, either under a power of sale contained in the mortgage or by virtue of the decree of a court of a court of equity, and if any surplus shall remain after payment of the moneys due on such mortgage and the costs and charges of the sale, such widow shall nevertheless be entitled to the interest or income of the one-third part of such surplus, for her life, as her dower.
(g) A widow shall not be endowed of lands conveyed to her husband by way of mortgage unless he acquire an absolute estate therein during the married period.
(h) In case of divorce dissolving the marriage contract for the misconduct of his wife, she shall not be endowed.